October 18, 2018
3:00 – 4:30 pm
Allen Library Auditorium (ground floor Allen Library North)
University of Washington Suzzallo/Allen Libraries
The Erotic Importance of the Van Buskirk Diaries to the Histories of Art, Literature, and Sexuality
Matthew Knip will discuss the importance of the Philip C. Van Buskirk diaries—housed in the Pacific Northwest Collection of the University of Washington Libraries Special Collection—to nineteenth century art, literary, and cultural criticism. Knip’s talk will scrutinize the homosocial and homoerotic subculture detailed in the diaries and outline the literary and artistic challenges this previously overlooked and misunderstood cultural world presents to a constellation of commonly-held critical assumptions about the nineteenth century, from authorship, privacy, and friendship to sexuality and identity.
Matthew Knip is a doctoral candidate in English at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and an adjunct instructor at Hunter College. His dissertation, Before Melville’s Masts: Sex in the Age of Sail, examines diverse sexual cultures Herman Melville experienced at sea and how these might inform the way we read his fiction. As a component of his research, he created a digital archive of the Philip C. Van Buskirk diaries from 1852 through 1858, including transcriptions of each entry. His essay “Homosocial Desire and Erotic Communitas in Melville’s Imaginary: The Evidence of Van Buskirk,” published in ESQ 62:2 (2016) won the 2017 Hennig Cohen Prize of the Melville Society for best article, book chapter, or essay on Herman Melville.
More about the significance of the Van Buskirk diaries
Between 1850 and 1903, Philip C. Van Buskirk composed more than three dozen volumes of a confessional diary that has the potential to powerfully reshape assumptions within art, literary, and cultural criticism of the nineteenth century. Historian B. R. Burg suggests the journals represent “the most extensive record of introspection ever kept by an American.” Van Buskirk recorded in his journals the everyday happenings that affected him personally. Less interested in the great political and military events that he witnessed firsthand—the Perry Expedition to Japan and the American Civil War, for instance—he outlined the moral and spiritual failings he identified in himself and others, with self-deprecating sincerity and confessional detail. By doing so, he quite unintentionally produced a remarkable, thick description of the homosocial organization of desire he (and Herman Melville) experienced among working-class sailors at sea. He opens a window into a previously overlooked and misunderstood world that existed before the emergence of modern sexuality, which interpellates subjects into identities that coalesce around object choice.
Travelers and adventurers today document trips with photographs and videos on social media, in published works, and in produced documentaries. The first travel writers to publish narrative accounts and visual depictions of the Pacific Northwest were eighteenth and nineteenth century maritime voyagers from Russia, Britain, France, Spain, and the eastern United States. Published accounts of their voyages were accompanied by illustrations depicting topography, people, crafts, and tools native to this region.
Illustrations of this time period started as sketches and became primarily copper engravings. These informative, decorative, and didactic illustrations were commonly printed along with maps and charts as plates in a folio-sized atlas. Atlases and exploration accounts were, in first printing, sold as a set, on a subscription basis. The publications offered never before seen views of far-away places and peoples.
UW Special Collections has an extraordinary collection of these travel accounts, including rare early editions. Our online research guide, Images of Exploration, Discovery, and Early Settlement in the Pacific Northwest, introduces you to this collection and the fascinating stories of artists who accompanied explorers on historic voyages. Like photographers and videographers today, these talented artists often wore more than one hat during the voyages, and some followed the project from start to finish. Their illustrations became the first published images of the land and people of our region.
John Webber Third voyage of James Cook, British (1776-1780)
John Webber, an Englishman of Swiss heritage, was the official expedition artist on Captain Cook’s third voyage from 1776 to 1780. Upon return, Webber was responsible for reducing his drawings and paintings to scale for engravers. The Admiralty also hired him as “art director” for the 1784 publication, the duties of which included supervising the engravers and the printing of the plates.
Lieutenant Blondela and Gaspard Duché de Vancy Voyage of Jean Françoise Galaup de la Pérouse, French (1785-1788)
Gaspard Duchè de Vancy, official artist of the voyage of Jean Françoise Galaup de la Pérouse, from 1785 to 1788, was raised in Vienna and exhibited artworks at the Salon of Young Artists in Paris in 1781 and at the Royal Academy in London in 1784. He was commissioned to execute several royal portraits including: Stanislaus of Poland, the secretary of the Kingdom of Naples, and Marie Antoinette.
A second artist, Lieutenant Blondela (first name unknown) was in the French military before joining the La Pérouse expedition. While not officially assigned as artist to the expedition, Blondela’s talents were a great asset to the voyage’s visual record. La Pérouse commented on Blondela in his journal, “he applies himself with a degree of assiduity, and executes with an intelligence, order and neatness, that are deserving of the highest encomiums
John Sykes, Harry Humphrys, Thomas Heddington, and Zachary Mudge Voyage of George Vancouver, British (1791-1795)
A gross oversight in Voyage of British explorer George Vancouver was the lack of an officially commissioned artist. Fortunately, there were four crewmen aboard skilled enough to provide sketches and drawings that could be transformed into illustrations for the publication. These men were John Sykes, Harry Humphrys, Thomas Heddington, and Zachary Mudge. John Sykes, a midshipman, was the most prolific artist. He created over 90 drawings throughout the voyage and his are the first depictions of the Puget Sound area. Artist, William Alexander, was hired later to redraw the sketches in preparation for the engraving.
Louis Choris Voyage of Otto von Kotzebue, Russian (1815-1818)
Louis Choris, official expedition artist on the Voyage of Otto von Kotzebue, was only 20 when he when the voyage began. Upon return, Choris solicited subscribers, who included the kings of France and Prussia, to enable publication of his Voyage.
Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz and Aleksandr Postels Voyage of Fedor Petrovich Litke, Russian (1826-1829)
Russian explorer Fedor Petrovick Litke hired artists and naturalists Friedrich Heinrich Baron von Kittlitz and Aleksandr Filippovich Postels, who both contributed to the artistic/scientific evidence of the voyage. Kittlitz’s job in accompanying Litke was to “hunt, collect, describe, and illustrate birds.”Returning from the voyage, Kittlitz spent time assembling materials for his own personal account of the voyage (published in 1858) as well as giving scientific lectures.
Postels is described in the crew sheet as Mineralogist and sketch-artist. He was key to the expedition, producing sketches of amphibians and fish, as well as recording botanical and ethnographic material.
Alfred T. Agate and Joseph Drayton Voyage of The United States Exploring Expedition/Wilkes Expedition, American (1838-1842)
Alfred T. Agate, born in New York, executed most of the drawings in the Wilkes Expedition expedition report. Soon after the end of the voyage he died, at age 33, in Washington D.C.
Joseph Drayton, another of the expedition artists, saw the drawings through to publication. He made the engravings, oversaw the coloring of the illustrations, as well as the printing and binding. In addition, he made the paper on which the works, engravings, and charts are printed.